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梅里云裳——嘉兴王店明墓出土服饰中韩合作修复与复原展

展览地点:纺织品文物修复展示馆

展览时间:2019年3月 - 2019年5月

梅里云裳——嘉兴王店明墓出土服饰中韩合作修复与复原成果展
Costumes in Memory: Sino-Korean Joint Conservation Project of Ming Dynasty Textiles
主    办:中国丝绸博物馆
韩国传统文化大学
协    办:北京服装学院
嘉兴博物馆
展览地点:中国丝绸博物馆纺织品文物修复展示馆二楼
展览时间:2019.3.15-5.5

Sponsor: China National Silk Museum
Korean National University of Cultural Heritage
Co-organizer: Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology
Jiaxing Museum
Location: Textile Conservation Gallery, China National Silk Museum
Exhibition Time: Mar.15, 2019 – May 5, 2019


前言
2006年11月,浙江省嘉兴市王店镇人民政府在平整该镇南部一处叫李家坟的土墩时发现一处古墓。嘉兴市文化局闻讯后随即组织人员对其进行抢救性发掘。经发掘清理,确认墓葬为明代中后期文林郎李湘及其妻妾四人的合葬墓,墓中出土了大量包括丝绸服饰在内的纺织品文物。
该批丝绸服饰出土后,中国丝绸博物馆承担了其应急保护及修复保护工作,其中李湘之妾徐氏墓出土的服饰由中国丝绸博物馆和韩国传统文化大学合作修复。修复的同时,中韩双方又各自复原制作了一件徐氏的袍服。此外,北京服装学院与中国丝绸博物馆另对墓中出土的几件袍服做了形制上的复原。
王店,旧称梅里,为明代兴起的丝绸业专业市镇,“蚕丝之广,不下吴兴”。李湘一族,属梅溪李氏,在明清两代是当地的望族。本次展览以梅溪李氏家族墓中出土的丝绸服饰为展示对象,藉此可以窥见明代王店丝绸行业繁荣景象之一斑。同时,中韩国双方就此批服饰的修复方法也将得以展示。并且,对服饰的复原工艺更有深度说明,使今人得以了解当时的服装设计方法及制作工艺。

Foreword
In November 2006, the People’s Government of Wangdian Town, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Provenance discovered an ancient tomb while leveling the mound, named as Lijiafen. Jiaxing Municipal Administration of Culture organized a rescue excavation of the tomb. The tomb was identified as a joint tomb of Li Xiang, Wenlinlang (an administrative level of officials) in the middle and late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and his wife and two concubines. Large quantities of textile objects were discovered on site, including a considerable number of silk costumes.
Emergency protection and conservation treatments were carried out on the group of silk costumes by China National Silk Museum (NSM).NSM. The costumes unearthed from the tomb of Xu, Li Xiang’s concubine, were conserved by the NSM and Korea National University of Cultural Heritage. In the meantime, NSM and Korea National university of Cultural Heritage respectively made the replicas of a gown of Xu. In addition, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology and NSM successfully reproduced the shape of several costumes unearthed from Xu’s tomb.
Wangdian, historically known as Meili, was a industrial town of silk production sprang up in the Ming Dynasty. As the saying goes, “the prosperity of silk industry in Meili is not inferior to Wuxing”. Li Xiang belonged to the local Li clan in Meixi, which was an established family in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The exhibition mainly displays silk costumes unearthed from the tombs of the Li family in Meixi, which catches a glimpse of the prosperity of silk industry in Wangdian in the Ming Dynasty. Meanwhile, through demonstrating the two parties’ repair and restoration technique operated in this batch of costumes, a better understanding of the costumes’ replication techniques is provided, which may also assist contemporary people in comprehending the fashion design methods and manufacturing technique of that time.


第一部分  关于王店
Wangdian Town
王店镇位于嘉兴市郊之南,海宁市之北,沪杭铁路与高速公路穿镇而过,北至上海127公里,南至杭州74公里。南接硖石、长安,北通嘉兴、魏塘,东连沈荡、武原,西转濮院、乌镇,水陆交通便利,是浙江的名镇之一。
王店镇名,始于五代后晋天福年间。天福二年(937),嘉兴镇遏使王逵居此,“植梅百亩,聚货交易,始称王店”(《嘉禾志》)。后“簪缨相继,日渐殷庶,遂成巨镇”(《梅里志》)。至明代中叶,此地“镇民之居,夹河成聚,为里者三”,成为嘉兴四大镇之一(《梅里备志》)。

王店位置图

关于墓葬
Cemetery
李家坟是一个直径约40、相对高度近3米的土墩,墓葬位于土墩的西半边。相传土墩西边原来有石像生,今已不存。墓室的东边有环墉,青石条砌筑。从这一结构来看,墓室坐东朝西,土墩主要是为墓葬而堆筑,村民传说的西面有石像生应属可信。
墓葬为四室合葬,从南至北依次编号为M1至M4,墓室结构从平面上看略呈“凹”字形,中间两主室(M2、M3)构成一个整体向后错,两边室(M1、M4)往前凸,主室与边室相错近90厘米。在M1中发现有完整的墓志铭,从中可知墓主身份,其中M2墓主为李湘,M3为其妻,M1为侧室陈氏,M4为侧室徐氏。

墓葬平面图

M1墓志铭

M1墓志铭内容:
明敕封先妣孺人陈氏圹记。孺人生于弘治戊午年十二月十四日(1498),享寿九十二岁,卒于万历十七年六月十二日(1589)。存配敕赠文林郎李东泉公,讳湘。子李芳,中嘉靖乙丑进士。孙李原中,万历己丑进士。曾孙五人,懋端、士嵩俱生员,廷恺、明瑞、华琨。谨卜万历壬辰二十年十二月十六日,葬于大彭十八都利二字圩先君圹左。孝子李芳谨记。

关于墓主
Occupants
李湘一族属梅溪李氏,在当地为望族。李湘的祖上自元朝末年从江苏江阴迁至梅里(王店镇)一带。李湘生于明成化二十三年(1487),字本澄,号东泉。李湘一生未建功名,也未做官,但其子李芳、其孙李衷宏(又名李原中)均中进士。李湘死后“赖子芳贵”,被追封为文林郎,文林郎为正七品,是古代有官名而无职事的官称。
徐氏墓中未发现墓志铭,其棺盖墨书“明故庶母徐孺人灵枢”。

李湘谱系图


第二部分 展出文物


平安竹绸对襟上衣 Jacket of twill damask with flower and bamboo
形    制:对襟,双袖平窄,右襟加缝掩襟。衣长过腰,内有衬里。
纹    样:主面料——平安竹;襟缘——云鹤纹
组织结构:主面料——2/1S斜纹地上以1/5S斜纹显花;衬里——1/1平纹


平安竹绸对襟上衣纹样复原



菱格螭纹绸裤Trousers of twill damask with hornless dragon on diamond
形    制:腰、裆、裤腿宽大,两裤腿均由两片拼缝,顶端接腰。左裤褪自拼缝中部至腰部开口,腰部开口处钉系带。内有衬里。
纹    样:菱格螭纹
组织结构:主面料及衬里同平安竹绸对襟上衣,裤腰及系带为平纹棉布


菱格螭纹绸裤


獬豸绣补云鹤团寿纹绸大袖衫Wide sleeve robe of twill damask with haechi badge
形    制:圆领,大襟右衽,大袖,前胸后背缀缝刺绣獬豸云纹补子。衣长过膝,单层无衬里。
纹    样:主面料——云鹤团寿纹;胸背——云纹獬豸
组织结构:2/1S斜纹地上以1/5S斜纹显花
胸    背:环编绣


纹样复原


獬豸绣补云鹤团寿纹绸大袖衫复原件
Reproduction of big sleeve robe in twill damask with haechi badge



织金双鹤胸背曲水地团凤纹绸大袖衫 Wide sleeve robe of twill damask with crane badge
形    制:竖领,大襟右衽,大袖,前胸后背以金线织就云纹双鹤补。衣长过膝,单层无衬里。
纹    样:主面料——曲水地团凤;胸背——云纹双鹤
组织结构:主面料——2/1S斜纹地上以1/5S斜纹显花
胸背——妆金,地组织:2/1S斜纹,纹纬(金线):1/5S斜纹


主面料纹样
胸前纹样


四季花蜂蝶绸裙 Skirt of twill damask with season’s flowers, bee and butterfly
形    制:裙分两片,连属于裙腰,每片均由三幅半织物拼缝而成,相向各打三褶。裙腰两端缝缀系带。
纹    样:主面料——四季花蜂蝶;襕——璎珞纹
组织结构:主面料——2/1S斜纹地上以1/5S斜纹显花

主面料纹样
底襕纹样


云纹纱裙 Gauze skirt with clouds
形    制:裙分两片,连属于裙腰,每片均由三幅半织物拼缝而成,相向各打三褶。裙腰两端缝缀系带。
纹    样:云纹
组织结构:1/1平纹地上以二经绞组织显花
本裙缺损较多,仅存两片。但从所残存的裙片可知云纹纱面料的幅宽及褶裥宽度,从打褶方式可知其形制应为明代常见的两片裙,每片由三幅半面料拼缝。从所残留的裙片侧边缘折边可知此裙单层无衬里。

纹样


松竹梅双色缎巾 Scarf of two-color stain damask with pine, bamboo and plum flower
纹    样:松竹梅
巾身组织:六枚暗花缎

纹样


第三部分  结尾
关于合作
Cooperation
2012年5月,中国丝绸博物馆与韩国传统文化大学签署了总体合作备忘录,拟在纺织服装的传统工艺与保护方面开展合作研究。同年11月,双方就《嘉兴王店李家坟明墓M4出土丝织品修复研究》签定了第一份项目合作协议。
2014年,双方修复工作完成;2018年,两件服装复原工作完成。在此期间,韩方先后有9名师生来国丝馆学习和交流修复及织造技术,国丝馆亦派专业人员赴韩国交流访问,从而促进了双方在传统工艺方面的互相认识与深入了解。

中韩合作备忘签约仪式



王店M4出土丝织品合作修复项目签订协议

结语
丝丝入筘,经纬交织,梅影现兮;针线飞走,彩线纳绣,云裳飘兮。古人巧手制美衣,虽经数百载沧桑而衣容受损,今由修复师妙手巧补而重现芳容,又经巧匠女红复原而得新生。
修复是使纺织品文物的寿命能够尽可能得以延长,复原则是使古代服饰的制作工艺能够被认知,从而得以传承和发扬。
此次中韩对于王店M4墓出土服饰的修复与复原,正是基于对古代纺织与服饰传统工艺的研究基础之上,双方发挥各自优势,使这批明代丝绸服饰及其制作工艺得以保护和传承。
作为合作成果的一部分,展览在展示中韩双方修复与复原成果的同时,希望增进互相的交流,深化彼此的合作。更希望能给广大传统服饰爱好者提供尽可能详实的实物资料,提供一块可以有效交流的平台。

Conclusion
The exquisite silk weaving technique, fantastic patterns and skilled works are stunning to people today. The beautiful costumes damaged in the vicissitude of hundreds of years are now restored and reproduced by experienced conservators and skilled craftsmen. The treatments help to extend the longevity of the textile relics while historical manufacturing technique of costumes is unveiled, inherited and promoted.
The treatments executed on the costumes unearthed from the M4 Tomb in Wangdian were all based on studies of ancient textile and traditional techniques of costumes, which largely extend the longevity of the textile objects. As for the replica project, it recognizes and reproduces the glamourous textile manufacturing techniques of the Ming Dynasty, which facilitates the preservation and heritage of the culture.
As a part of the cooperation results, the exhibition is held to enhance communication and cooperation while presenting what NSM and the Korean Heritage group have both achieved. One of the aims of the exhibition is to provide traditional-costume-enthusiasts with knowledges in exquisite details basing on material artefacts and a broad platform for effective communication.


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